As a country straddling Europe and Asia, Turkey is a unique destination with a rich cultural heritage that blends East and West. Although the country has such diverse influences and is quite multicultural, expats may still have some difficulty adjusting to the local culture in Turkey.

Turkish people are generally friendly and welcoming to foreigners, and expats should move to Turkey with an open mind and not be afraid to embrace all aspects of their new life. The slightest effort to learn and speak Turkish will be highly appreciated.

Religion in Turkey

Although the majority of Turkey's population is Muslim, the country is adamant about its persona as a secular state. This stance is enshrined in the country's constitution but, between the secularists and the traditionalists, tension continues over issues such as the Islamic headscarf and women's rights. 

For all practical purposes, and in Istanbul in particular, one can safely practise their religion and Western dress is widely worn. Despite this, local religious customs should always be respected. This is especially important during the Muslim holy month of Ramazan (Ramadan) when Muslims refrain from eating, drinking and smoking between sunrise and sunset.

Understanding gestures in Turkey

Turks consider it rude to say 'no' outright if something is not possible. Instead, expats may get a roundabout explanation, which new arrivals may find confusing and frustrating. Unlike shaking the head, Turks have a unique gesture for indicating ‘no’ – it is an upward flick of the head accompanied by a clicking of the tongue. 

Addressing others in Turkey

In Turkey, women will always be addressed by their first names with a hanim (pronounced 'hanum', meaning lady) attached to it. It is not considered familiar or rude to use first names. For example, Jane Smith will be addressed as Jane hanim, rather than Mrs Smith. The male equivalent of hanim is bey (pronounced 'bay') and, as such, John Smith will be addressed as John bey.

Women in Turkey

Turkish people are known for their friendliness, but sometimes this extends a bit far when it comes to how men respond to women. Although most men are respectful towards women, reports of sexual harassment of foreign women in Turkey are an unfortunate reality, particularly on public transport or on the streets of Istanbul. It’s not unusual for Turkish men to perceive Western women as sexually promiscuous and for expat women to be the target of unwanted stares or comments. Female expats should avoid going out alone, especially at night.

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